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Artificial Insemination

rtificial insemination consists of depositing sperm (from the partner, or the donor, depending on the case) into the woman’s reproductive tract. There are historical references about inseminations as early as the 17th century; of course, they were very different from the ones done today.
It was first done to solve the case of a patient who had hypospadias (malformation of the penis that makes the opening of the urethra be downwards).
Later on, insemination was done by depositing sperm into the cervix (intracervical insemination). Finally, it was performed by depositing sperm inside the uterus (intrauterine insemination). This is the type of insemination currently used.

hat happens with the sperm?
When performing the first intrauterine inseminations very sharp pains were observed in the women. This pain was due to some substances (prostaglandins) present in the seminal plasma.
Thus, another step forward was the treatment of the sperm in the laboratory to separate the seminal plasma from the spermatozoids. Therefore, when insemination is done, only the spermatozoids (along with the culture medium) are placed in the uterus.
In this process of separation of seminal plasma and spermatozoids, the sample is also improved with different techniques (gradients, swim-up), which improve the motility and concentration of the spermatozoids. In this way, it is intended that the sample being deposited inside the uterus is optimal to have the highest chances of pregnancy.

Dr. Braulio Peramo Moya
Medical specialist in obstetrics and gynecology. Assisted reproduction.

Colegiado nº 282844119 del Ilustre Colegio Oficial de Médicos de Madrid | Registered Specialist n 6063017, General Medical Council of London”
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